Reason and Revelation
American economist Robert Samuelson recently made an interesting observation about the
American society in his Newsweek column: "America's glories and evils are tightly
fused together." Quoting sociologist Seymour Lipset, he asserts that America's
economic vitality and progress come from the same source as do crime, family breakdown,
inequality, and vulgarity. Freedom and individualism have fired economic advance, yet have
also inhibited social control. But why the qualities that bring the best in a nation also
should bring the worst in it? Is humanity doomed by having its vices and virtues so
Samuelson does not probe the issue. Instead he seems to be happily resigned to it.
"We are burdened as well as blessed by our beliefs," he says. Economics, we may
be reminded, is the dismal science.
Actually the world is not doomed by design. Samuelson comes very close to the truth but
he confuses approaches or tools with attributes. A tool that works great in one area is
also being used in another for which it was never designed. The problem lies with the user
who keeps on insisting on its use in the second area citing its success in the first. To
put matters simply, it's the free use of reason and intellect that is behind most of
America's (and West's in general) phenomenal scientific and material progress. It's the
use of the same tool in moral, and religious life that has caused its equally phenomenal
Every tool has a designated area of application. Outside, it will fail to work. A 4 bit
computer is good for some elementary math involving whole numbers. It may multiply 2 by 20
and give the correct answer instantly. But burdened with complex calculations involving
several decimal digits, it will give the WRONG answers. A weighing scale meant for gold
will not work for iron and vice versa. Their resolution and capacity are inappropriate for
Same with the tools we use for learning about the world. Our senses and intellect are
wonderful things. Science and technology are all about their use. Certainly it was free
inquiry driven by reason that led to so many of the discoveries of science. It happened at
an accelerated pace during the past four centuries and the results are everywhere around
us to be seen.
But a tool that is so great in one area may be totally useless, even dangerous, in
another. Pure Reason, uninformed by Divine Guidance, is a defective tool for deciding
purpose of life or suggesting its values. What is Right and what is Wrong? These questions
require knowledge beyond what we can acquire by using our senses and reasoned analysis. As
a direct result, everyone's reasoning is different. That is why philosophers have never
been able to agree upon what should be the goal of life. Happiness? Survival? Pleasure?
Love? Self-fulfillment? You name it. In addition, it is impossible for us to separate our
reasoning in these matters from our feelings. Pure or uninformed reason becomes just a
tool to justify what we desire.
Today West's problem is that it has accepted the wrong tool for developing its moral
compass. Probably the majority of its people abhor homosexuality. They may know that it is
an abomination and evil. Yet today same-sex marriages are getting legal sanction in the
West. And they are helpless in trying to stop its advances. Why? Because they cannot argue
that it is wrong based on pure reason. It is easier to make a case against smoking in
public places, then against the worst forms of immorality. Such is the result when pure
reason becomes the accepted arbiter of right and wrong.
There is nothing modern about this either. Several centuries ago, Obaidullah Hasan
Qirwani, a leader of the renegade batani cult declared it foolish for a brother to marry
his beautiful sister to a total stranger, while trying to be content with a less qualified
wife -- another stranger. She would be much more suited to be wife of her own brother,
with whom she may be a lot more compatible, he argued. His argument is, no doubt,
sickening. But is there a counter argument based on pure reason?
Certainly mankind needs a superior tool for determining the values and purpose of life.
A source of guidance that is based on certain knowledge, not conjecture. One that can
inform our desires rather than being subservient to them. This is what Prophets, Alayhim
assalam, came with. They claimed to have access to the higher source of knowledge, the
Divine Revelation. Those who accepted them used reason and observation to verify their
authenticity and character. But they accepted Divine Revelation as a SUPERIOR source of
knowledge! That is why a son can tell his father:
"O my father! To me has come knowledge that had not reached you. So
follow me. I will guide you to a Way that is even and straight." (Maryam, 19:43).
All this is obvious, except in implications. We accept this is Right and that is Wrong
because the Revelation TOLD us, not because it PROVED it to us. What is wrong with riba?
Gambling? Pork? Alcohol? Revelation told us that they were wrong. Why is hijab necessary?
Allah and His Prophet, Salla-Allahu alayhi wa sallam, ordered that. What are the rights of
men and women? Those given to them by Allah and His Prophet, Salla-Allahu alayhi wa
sallam. The attribute of the Muslims is that they "listened and followed"
(Al-Baqarah, 2:285). It is not that they listened and questioned, and argued, and
investigated and then if they felt like it, they followed. That is also THE message of
Prophet Ibrahim, alayhi assalm's, sacrifice, a defining event for Islam. For the Qur'an
describes the moment when the father and son were ready for the ultimate sacrifice by
saying: "When they surrendered" (Al-Saffat, 37:103). Literally it can also be
translated: "When they accepted Islam." For pure reason could have raised a
million questions about the command for that sacrifice.
Normally it is difficult for us to say "I don't know." It is even more
difficult for nations to admit a weakness in their celebrated tools of inquiry. That is
the dilemma of the modern world, which sees so much wrong with itself but cannot bring
itself to admitting the problem with its basic approach. But a Muslim is the person who
has both the wisdom and the courage to surrender before the higher source of knowledge and
guidance. For him Revelation informs his reason and his reason controls his emotions. Such
is the person who is blessed, but not burdened, by his beliefs.