Sunnah and Bid'ah
The Straight Path has been laid out. Our job is only
to follow it, not to try to discover new paths.
Posted: 11 Safar 1422, 5 May 2001
Once some Jewish scholars said to Sayyidna Umar bin Khattab, Radi-Allahu unhu,
"The Qur'an contains a verse that if it had been revealed to us, we would have
designated a day to celebrate its revelation." Upon enquiry they mentioned the verse:
"This day have I perfected your religion for you, completed my favor upon you, and
have chosen for you Islam as your religion." [Al-Maida 5:3] "Yes, I know, the
time and place when it was revealed," he replied.
Indeed it was a historic day. It was the day of Arafa during the farewell Hajj of
. This verse announced the completion of a historic process
that had started with the coming to earth of Sayyidna Adam, alayhi salam. Allah sent His
guidance with him and informed him that in the generations to come there would be
additional messengers. The process continued through the 124,000 prophets who were sent to
different lands at different times. It culminated with the coming of the Last Messenger,
. He received revelations over a twenty-three year period.
Then during the Farewell Hajj, on the plain of Arafat, in the presence of nearly 150,000
companions, this verse announced that it was all done!
The full significance of this message must never escape us. Islam is unlike all
previous revealed religions in one crucial respect. All of them came with expiration
dates. Islam has none. The Guidance from Allah had been completed. The religion had been
perfected. There would be no new message, no new prophet, no new Shariah, and no new
command until the Last Day! The Straight Path has been laid out. Our job is only to follow
it, not to try to discover new paths. In Jumuah khutbahs this Ummah has been repeating the
hadith: "I warn you of the newly invented matters (in the religion), and every newly
invented matter is bid'ah, and every bid'ah is misguidance, and every misguidance is in
the Hellfire." (an-Nasaa'ee)
In Islamic terminology, Sunnah and Bid'ah are antonyms. Sunnah literally means path,
and it is the path shown to us by the Prophet
. This includes the
Shariah teachings derived from Qur'an, Hadith, the consensus of the companions, and the
ijtehad of the qualified imams. Bid'ah means adding or changing articles of faith or
religious practices. It can take many forms. One may change the occasion of a prescribed
act, thereby extending it to occasions for which it was not meant. One may add
restrictions on a desired act that the Shariah had not imposed. One may change the style
or form of such an act. One may start doing something collectively that was to be
performed individually. Or one may change the Shariah status of an act from permissible to
mandatory. Of course, one may also add a ritual where none existed. These are all forms of
bid'ah. They are all forbidden.
In Islamic terminology, Sunnah and Bid'ah are
antonyms...Bid'ah means adding or changing articles of faith or religious practices.
Bid'ah is like fake currency that tries to drive out the good currency. By design it
has the appearance of a virtuous religious act. But it lies outside the Shariah. So do its
sources, which, in a great number of cases can be traced to non-Islamic influence from
surrounding communities with which Muslim communities historically came into contact.
Hence the telltale signs that set it apart from Sunnah. First, bid'ahs normally vary from
region to region--- and over time--- revealing their local, non-Islamic source. This is
unlike the genuine religious practices that maintain the same form everywhere. No matter
where he comes from, a follower of, say, Hanafi Fiqh, will be offering salat in exactly
the same way, right down to the minutest detail - like when to raise the index finger. In
contrast, the bid'ah practices surrounding, marriage or death in the Indo-Pak subcontinent
vary from those in Arabia or Africa.
Second, the bid’ah practices are largely transmitted through oral tradition.
Many of these have a pseudo-legal, ritualistic framework of their own, but one
would be hard pressed to find it in the standard legal texts! Rather it lives in
the folklore. Example: consider the practice of shaking hands after finishing
the salat. Open the chapter on salat in your fiqh book. It lists all the steps,
in great detail, involved in offering salat. Does it mention the handshake as
well? No. The handshake comes from folklore, not from an authentic text, a clue
that it may be a bid’ah, which it is. Similarly consider the rituals normally
performed upon the death of a person. Again the fiqh books describe in great
detail how the funeral and burial should be done. But do they also mention that
on the third day (or the tenth or the fortieth), a gathering should be arranged
where participants should recite the Qur’an for the benefit of the deceased and
after which they should be served with dinner? Again the answer is no. Again the
reason is that all of these common practices are not part of the Shariah. They
are an addition or bid’ah.
Bid'ah is like fake currency that tries to
drive out the good currency. By design it has the appearance of a virtuous religious act.
But it lies outside the Shariah.
One factor that helps the propagation of bid’ahs is the attitude that treats
religion as hobby rather than as the serious business of submitting to the
command of Allah A. Pure submission may be “boring.” It demands sacrifice.
Bid’ahs are fun. On top of that they “promise” reward in the Hereafter. This
makes the bid’ah more deadly than ordinary sins. From an act we know to be a
sin, we can repent. But how can one repent from a wrong that he considers to be
But in reality bid’ahs are a tremendous burden. Islamic teachings are simple
and easy and life would be much simpler if all bid’ahs were removed from it.
When a person dies, Islam teaches that others should be providing food to the
bereaved family. Bid’ah requires the exact opposite, that the bereaved should
feed all the visitors―a widespread practice in the Muslim communities in Asia.
Other bid’ahs are also like that. A burden. And the burden in the Hereafter will
be much bigger, for “every bid’ah is in the Fire.”